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Preparing for Surgery Part 2

Your admission letter from the hospital will tell you the date and time of your operation, and what time you need to arrive.
It should also tell you which ward or department you’re going to be in, a contact number for your hospital or ward, and the consultant who will be taking care of you.
When you arrive, a member of staff will explain the processes to you and give you an identity bracelet to wear during your stay in hospital.
During your time in hospital, you may be asked the same questions by several people. This is routine, and ensures that correct information about you is checked and available at each stage of treatment.
You may want to ask some questions of your own, write them down in advance so you won’t forget anything.

Take any medicines your doctor asked you to take before surgery. However, if you normally take tablets or insulin for diabetes, make sure you mention that to the surgical team.
You’ll be asked whether you’re allergic to any medication, if you throw up after surgeries, or whether any relatives have ever had any problems with an anaesthetic.

You’ll be asked to change into a hospital gown, and the details of the operation will be explained. You’ll then be asked to sign a consent form, giving your permission for surgery to go ahead. This form indicates that you know what the surgery is for, and you understand the risks, benefits and alternative treatments.
For some operations, a needle connected to a drip will be injected into your hand, allowing fluids, nourishment and medicine to be given while you’re under anaesthetic.

You’ll be given an anaesthetic, so you won’t feel any pain during the operation.
A general anaesthetic will be needed for a major operation, which means you’ll be asleep throughout the whole operation. It will be given to you via an injection or gas, which you breathe through a mask.
The anaesthetist will be by your side the whole time you are asleep, carefully monitoring you, and will be there when you wake up.
If you don’t need to be put to sleep, you’ll be given a regional anaesthetic. This means you’ll be conscious throughout, but you won’t feel any pain. It may be a local anaesthetic, where a small area is numbed, or an epidural, which reduces sensation in the upper or lower areas of your body.

After surgery you’ll be moved to the recovery room, where you’ll be told how the operation went.
You may feel dizzy as you come round from the anaesthetic. A nurse will give you oxygen through tubes or a mask to help you feel better.
It’s common to feel sick or vomit after you’ve been given anaesthesia. You may also have a sore throat and dry mouth.
Your blood pressure will be taken via an automatic cuff that squeezes tightly at regular times. Your temperature will also be taken.

It’s important to find out how well your operation went. Here are some questions you may want to ask: (>>>>)

Tell your nurse as soon as you start to feel any pain, so they can give you painkilling medication as soon as possible, to stop it getting worse (the medication can take 20 minutes to start working).

The sooner you start to move around, the better. Lying in bed for too long can cause some of your blood to pool in your legs. This puts you at risk of a blood clot.
If possible, doing some leg exercises can help to prevent a blood clot. These may be as simple as flexing your knee or ankle and rotating your foot.
You may be given special support stockings to wear after surgery, or an injection to thin the blood slightly to help reduce the risk of clots.

Research shows the earlier you get out of bed and start walking, eating and drinking after your operation, the faster the recovery will be.

Before you leave hospital you will be given advice about how to care for your wound and how often to use the medications.
Feel free to ask your doctor some questions before you leave hospital. (>>>)

You might be feeling very tired when you get home, especially if you’ve had a major operation or a general anaesthetic.
It’s important to move around as soon as possible after surgery. This will encourage your blood to flow and your wounds to heal, and will build up strength in your muscles.
Generally, try to get back into your regular routine as soon as possible. Eat more healthily, start exercising to stay in shape, and stop smoking if you smoke.

If you or your caregivers at home notice any of the following signs after your operation, call the doctor immediately:
pain or swelling in your leg. The pain may be made worse by bending your foot upward towards your knee
the skin of your leg feeling hot or discoloured
the veins near the surface of your leg appearing larger than normal
Those could be signs of a deep venous thrombosis (DVT). If DVT is not treated, a pulmonary embolism may occur. Pulmonary embolism is a blood clot that has come away from its original site and become lodged in one of your lungs.
If you have a pulmonary embolism, you may experience more serious symptoms, such as:
breathlessness, which may come on gradually or suddenly
chest pain, which may become worse when you breathe in
collapsing suddenly

Your doctor will have given you an idea of how long it’ll take to get back to normal.
As a rough guide, it’ll take you about a week to recover from a simple operation such as gallbladder removal, and a few months to recover from a major operation such as a hip replacement.

Wishing you a speedy recovery.

Preparing for Surgery Part1

Facing surgery can be a frightening experience. You may be having questions, fears, and doubts. Research suggests that people who prepare mentally and physically for surgery have fewer complications, less pain and recover more quickly than others.
This episode is to guide you through the preparation process for surgery.

While emotional preparation is a necessary, preparing physically is also important for a successful surgical outcome. In the 2 weeks before your surgery, you should:
Stop smoking and alcohol drinking.
Eat a healthy diet.
Avoid aspirin, vitamin E, multivitamins, or other medications that interfere with blood clotting for a week before your surgery. Discuss it with your health care provider before stopping any medication.
Exercise regularly.

Some days before surgery, you’ll be asked to attend a pre-operative assessment, which may be an appointment with a nurse or doctor. You’ll be asked questions about your health, and some medical tests will be carried out.
Make sure that you inform your doctor about all the medications, vitamins and herbal supplements you take.
You’ll be given clear information on:
whether you need to stop eating and drinking in the hours before your operation
whether you should stop taking your usual medications before going into hospital
what to bring with you into hospital
how long you’ll be statying at the hospital
If your doctor has instructed you to fast before the operation, it’s really important that you don’t eat or drink anything – this includes light snacks, sweets and water. You need an empty stomach during surgery, so you don’t vomit while you’re under anaesthetic.
If you take insulin because of diabetes you’ll still need to avoid eating and drinking before surgery, but make sure your medical team is aware of your condition.

You’ll need to remove all body piercings, make-up and nail polish before your operation. This can help to reduce unwanted bacteria being brought into the hospital. Also, the doctors will need to see your skin and nails to make sure your blood circulation is healthy during the opeartion.

If you’re staying in hospital, you may wish to pack a hospital bag.

You may want to check with your hospital about their policy on the use of electronic devices during your hospital stay.

Let your surgeon know if you develop a cough, cold or fever a few days before surgery. They’ll advise whether your operation can go ahead.

You should avoid certain foods and dietary supplements before surgery.
having food in your system may cause nausea and vomiting, which can be dangerous. Some foods may complicate intestinal surgeries or cause diarrhea. In addition to this, Your doctor or surgeon will give you diet advice prior to surgery.
The night before your surgery, you should only drink beverages you can see through. Your body will digest these drinks quickly so your digestive system is cleared for surgery. Avoid juice with pulp, coffee with cream, cola and milk.
While fibrous foods are normally healthy for your body, you should not consume them prior to surgery. Fiber takes a longer period of time for your body to break down and your bowels need to be cleared out before surgery. Avoid high-fiber foods such as whole-wheat pasta, oatmeal, whole-grain bread, beans and lentils, artichokes, peas and broccoli, raspberries, pears, apples and oranges.
Your doctor may recommend that you stop taking any supplements one week before surgery.

Hypertension

Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

Hypertension usually does not cause symptoms initially, but sustained hypertension over time is a major risk factor for many deadly complications. Why?

when there’s too much pressure on the walls of the blood vessels, they might end up bursting somewhere in the body causing severe damage to the surrounding tissues.
Hypertension is classified as either primary (essential) hypertension or secondary hypertension. About 90–95% of cases are categorized as primary hypertension, defined as high blood pressure with no obvious underlying cause, except maybe the unhealthy lifestyle. The other 5–10% of cases are categorized as secondary hypertension, which is due to an identifiable cause, such as chronic kidney disease, narrowing of the aorta or kidney arteries, or an endocrine disorder.
If you ignore your blood pressure because you think symptoms will alert you to the problem, you are taking a dangerous chance with your life. Everybody needs to measure their blood pressure on a regular basis, and to prevent high blood pressure from developing.

So, are there any warning signs for hyertension?

There’s a common misconception that people with high blood pressure, will experience symptoms such as nervousness, sweating, difficulty sleeping or facial flushing. The truth is that hypertension is very often a symptomless condition.

You should not try to evaluate your symptoms in an attempt to self-diagnose high blood pressure. Diagnosis should only be made by your doctor.

Headaches or the lack of headaches are not reliable indicators of your blood pressure. Instead, please work with your doctor and know your numbers.

Except with hypertensive crisis, nosebleeds are not a reliable indicator for hypertention. If your nosebleeds are frequent (more than once a week) or if they are heavy or hard to stop, you should talk to your doctor.
Keep in mind that nosebleeds can be caused by a variety of factors.

A variety of symptoms may be indirectly related to HBP but are warning signs that need medical assessment. For example:
Blood spots in the eyes
Floaters in the eyes are not related to high blood pressure. However, an ophthalmologist may be able to detect damage to the optic nerve caused by untreated HBP.
Facial flushing
Facial flushing occurs when blood vessels in the face dilate. While facial flushing may occur while your blood pressure is higher than usual, HBP is not the cause of facial flushing.
Dizziness
Sudden dizziness, loss of balance or coordination and trouble walking are all warning signs of a stroke. HBP is one of the leading risk factors for stroke.

When blood pressure readings rise to dangerously high levels (systolic of 180 or higher OR diastolic of 110 or higher) you may notice obvious symptoms. In addition to extreme readings of blood pressure, if you experience:
Severe headaches
Severe anxiety
Shortness of breath
Nosebleeds
This is called a hypertensive crisis, and emergency medical treatment is needed.

Prevention
Much of the disease burden of high blood pressure is experienced by people who are not labeled as hypertensive. Lifestyle changes are recommended to lower blood pressure, before starting drug therapy. Mainly:
maintain normal body weight for adults (e.g. body mass index 20–25 kg/m2)
reduce dietary sodium intake to engage in regular aerobic physical activity such as brisk walking (≥30 min per day, most days of the week)
limit alcohol consumption to no more than 3 units/day in men and no more than 2 units/day in women
consume a diet rich in fruit and vegetables (e.g. at least five portions per day);
Effective lifestyle modification may lower blood pressure as much as an individual antihypertensive drug. Combinations of two or more lifestyle modifications can achieve even better results.
Resistant hypertension
Resistant hypertension is defined as hypertension that remains above goal blood pressure in spite of using, at once, three antihypertensive medications belonging to different drug classes. Low adherence to treatment is an important cause of resistant hypertension. Resistant hypertension may also represent the result of chronic high activity of the autonomic nervous system; this concept is known as “neurogenic hypertension”.
What are the causes?
Resistant hypertension has several possible causes, including one or more other underlying medical conditions. In addition to treating RH with medications, doctors typically investigate secondary causes, such as:
Abnormalities in the hormones that control blood pressure.
Artery-clogging plaque in blood vessels that nourish the kidneys.
Sleep problems, such as obstructive sleep apnea.
Obesity and heavy alcohol intake.

If undiscovered, hypertension can be a serious health problem. Get your blood pressure checked on a regular basis, and stick to a healthy lifestyle to prevent it.
all the best.

Tips for Healthy Eyes

When you’re seeing well and have no irritation, it’s easy to forget about going to the eye doctor. Often, if you wait until you notice an eye problem, it can be too late.
I have 7 tips to help you protect your eye health.

1. Get Regular Eye Exams
Children should have their first eye exam between the ages of 6 and 12 months, then regular eye exams at school age. It’s important to detect visual problems that could impede a child’s ability to learn.
Adults, especially those over 40, should have yearly eye exams, particularly to prevent age-related ocular conditions including macular degeneration, cataracts, and glaucoma.
2. Let Your Eye Doctor Know Your Health History
Be sure your optometrist or ophthalmologist knows about what’s medically relevant. There’s a connection between illnesses in the body and eye issues. Hypertension, blood pressure and diabetes can all be detected by looking in the back of the eye.
3. Control the Air Quality in Your Home or Office
In the winter, the heating systems in homes and offices create dry air. Consider using a portable humidifier to keep the air moist, which will help prevent eye irritation caused by dryness. If you have a pet, keeping their hair off areas where you sit or lie down, like couches and chairs, is important as well. Pet hairs can track in other irritants from outside that can cause inflammation in the eyes.
4. Give Your Eyes a Break from the Computer Screen
Taking the following steps to protect your eyes:
Make sure your glasses or contact lenses are adequate for computer use.
Some people may need glasses to help with contrast, glare, and eye strain when using a computer.
Position your computer so that your eyes are level with the top of the monitor. This allows you to look slightly down at the screen.
Try to avoid glare on your computer from windows and lights. Use an anti-glare screen if needed.
If your eyes are dry, blink more.
Every 20 minutes, rest your eyes by looking 20 feet away for 20 seconds. At least every 2 hours, get up and take a 15-minute break.
5. Eat Right for Your Eyes
Dark leafy greens and dark berries can protect against macular degeneration, which is the leading cause of vision loss in people over 60. Foods rich in omega-3s, like walnuts and fresh cold-water fish, can reduce inflammation in the blood vessels of the eye.
6. Protect Your Eyes
Wear sunglasses with 100 percent UVA and UVB protection. And protect your children’s eyes as well. Clean your contact lens case: After you put in your contacts, be sure that the case is empty of all solution: Dump it out, then rinse and dry the case before you store your lenses in it again. This will prevent bactria from growing in it. Choose good quality makup and never use it inside your eyes. Throw away mascara 3 months after the opening date.
7. Be Prepared While Travelling
While flying, your eyes might feel dry. If you are a frequent traveller, be ready with eye drops (artifical tears)
If you waer glasses or lenses, take an extra pair of lenses and your glasses, just in case. And while you’re on vacation, avoid swimming with your contact lenses, to avoid the effect of chemicals and bacteria in the water on them.

All the best to you.

Q & A Delayed Ejaculation

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a problem in which a woman’s hormones are out of balance- which would affect your periods and make it difficult to get pregnant, and it may also cause unwanted changes in the way you look. If it isn’t treated, over time it can lead to serious health problems, diabetes and heart disease.
So why is it called polycystic ovary syndrome? Women with PCOS grow many small cysts on their ovaries. The ovaries are “hormone factories”, and any problems in them would lead to hormone imbalances.
When hormones get out of balance in PCOs. One hormone change triggers another, which changes another, and so on.
Normally, the ovaries make a tiny amount of male sex hormones (androgens). In PCOS, they start making more male hormones. This may cause you to stop ovulating, get acne, and grow extra facial and body hair.
Also, due to the hormonal imbalance, the body may have a problem using insulin, called “insulin resistance”. Insulin is the hormone that makes the cells able to take up sugar for energy production. So, when the body doesn’t use insulin well, sugar levels will go up in the blood. Over time, this increases your chance of getting diabetes.
The cause of PCOS is not fully understood, but PCOS seems to run in families, so your chance of having it is higher if your m other, sister, or maternal/paternal aunts have had it.
Symptoms vary. You may have only a few symptoms or a lot of them. The most common symptoms are:
Acne.
Weight gain and trouble losing weight.
Extra hair on the face and body. Often women get thicker and darker facial hair, especially on the chin, and more hair on the chest, belly, and back.
Thinning hair on the scalp.
Irregular periods. Often women with PCOS have fewer than nine periods a year. Some women have no periods. Others have very heavy bleeding.
Fertility problems. Many women who have PCOS have trouble getting pregnant (infertility).
Depression.
To diagnose PCOS, the doctor will: Ask questions about your health, do a physical exam, do a number of lab tests to check your blood sugar, insulin, and other hormone levels. A pelvic ultrasound will be done to look for cysts on your ovaries.
So, what is the treatment of PCO?
The most important steps towards treating PCOS are: regular exercise, healthy foods, and weight control. **Try to fit in moderate activity and/or vigorous activity often. Walking and HIIT are great options here. **Eat heart-healthy foods. This includes lots of vegetables, fruits, nuts, beans, and whole grains. It limits foods that are high in saturated fat, such as meats, cheeses, and fried foods. **Losing 10 lb (4.5 kg) may help get your hormones in balance and regulate your menstrual cycle. **If you smoke, consider quitting. Women who smoke have higher androgen levels that may contribute to PCOS symptoms. **Your doctor also may prescribe medications to reduce symptoms, , help you have regular menstrual cycles, or fertility medicines if you are having trouble getting pregnant. But those medications will not be effective without a healthy lifestyle.
It is important to see your doctor for follow-up to make sure that treatment is working and to adjust it if needed. You may also need regular tests to check for diabetes, high blood pressure, and other possible problems.
It may take a while for treatments to help with symptoms such as facial hair or acne. You can use over-the-counter or prescription medicines for acne.
It can be hard to deal with having PCOS. If you are feeling sad or depressed, it may help to talk to a counselor or to other women who have PCOS. But remember that with PCOS, you can change your whole health situation if you stick to a healthy lifestyle, so go for it! All the best.