Child Masturbating

Has your child developed a habit of putting his hands in his underwear? Does this make you uncomfortable? Learn how do get them to stop.

At some point, most children explore their genitals just as they explore other parts of their bodies. By the age of 5, children need to be told proper manners when it comes to this private activity.

If your child has his hands in his pants, use a quiet and friendly tone and ask him to stop. Tell him that it’s something he should be doing privately, then encourage his interest in another activity.
Some kids don’t bathe their private areas properly, which can cause dry skin or a rash. Check to see that your child isn’t suffering irritation from a rash that’s causing itching.
Some children masturbate when they are bored in front of the TV set. If this is the case, limit the amount of TV your child watches, and when he does watch, give him an activity to play with, or sit beside him while he watches. It’s best if you don’t even mention the habit as a reason for the change in the routine.
If your child has been falling asleep masturbating, change the bedtime routine. Read for him, and when you turn off the light, stay in the room and talk quietly or give him a back rub. Once your child starts to fall asleep, you can leave the room.

If you have religious views that prohibit masturbation, don’t resort to punishment or shame to stop your child, as this can backfire and force your child to hide this activity and then feel guilty and ashamed.

Purchase a book about sexuality and development. Read it yourself first because there’s lots of stuff you may have forgotten and some things you may not even know! Share it with your child at an appropriate time. Let your child know that you’re available to answer any questions.

Wishing you and your family health and happiness.

Kitchen safety

An important part of good parenting is providing a safe home for your child. I have some safety tips for you to make sure that your family is on the safe side.
This episode is about the kitchen safety:

  • Keep knives, forks, scissors, and other sharp tools in a drawer with a childproof latch.
  • Have you installed a dishwasher lock so kids can’t open it while it’s running and can’t reach?
  • Install a stove lock and have knob protectors placed on the stove knobs.
  • Position chairs and step stools away from the stove.
  • Turn pot handles on the stove inward and place them on back burners where kids can’t reach them. If you get a phone call while cooking, turn off the heat and take your child with you out of the kitchen.
  • Store glass objects, and appliances with sharp blades, on high shelves in the kitchen closets.
  • Fix a childproof latch on the garbage can.
  • Have all appliances unplugged when not in use, and make sure that the sockets are out of children’s reach.
  • Store all medicine bottles in a high cabinet far from reach, make sure they are tightly closed.
  • Store matches, lighters, and candles in a locked cabinet.
  • Free the cabinet under the sink of all chemicals. That includes cleaning supplies, bug sprays, dishwasher detergent, and dishwashing liquids.
  • Store plastic garbage bags and sandwich bags out of children’s reach.
  • Make sure all small objects are out of reach.
  • Install childproof latches on all cabinet doors.
  • Install a fire extinguisher. Learn how to use it. Remember: never use water to extinguish oil or electric fires.
  • Have a safety belt for your child’s highchair.
  • Always wear cotton clothes while cooking. And make sure your baby’s clothes are 100% cotton too.

Wishing you and your family all health and safety.

Wall & Floor Safety


An important part of good parenting is providing a safe home for your child.

I have some safety tips for you to make sure that your family is on the safe side.

This episode discusses general rules around the house.


Walls & Floors:

  • Make sure that the wall paint contains no lead. Repair any cracking or peeling paint immediately.
  • Remove any nails in the walls within the reach of children.
  • Make sure that mirrors and frames are hung securely.
  • Secure carpets to floors and fit them with anti-slip pads.

Doors & Windows:

  • Install finger-pinch guards on doors.
  • Install one-piece door stops (not the ones with rubber tips that could be swallowed)
  • Place doorknob covers on doors, and keep unsafe rooms always locked with keys hanging away from children’s reach.
  • Stick or paint colorful sings on all glass doors in the house so they won’t be mistaken for open doors.
  • Have childproof locks on sliding doors, and door stops securing them when they are open.
  • Have window guards installed on upper-floor windows.
  • Fix window stops to keep the windows from closing all the way.
  • Secure window-blind cords with clothespins or clips.


  • Secure bookshelves and other furniture with wall brackets so they can’t be tipped over.
  • Fix protective padding on corners of furniture pieces that have sharp edges.
  • Fix safety hinges on closet doors to prevent them from closing.
  • Have flat screen TVs mounted securely on the wall, and older, heavy TVs on a low, stable piece of furniture.
  • Fix stops on all removable drawers to prevent them from falling out. Or avoid buying drawer chests all together.
  • Keep beds away from windows.


  • Fix safety gates at the top and bottom of every stairway.
  • Clear stairways of tripping hazards, such as loose carpeting and toys.
  • Placed a guard on banisters and railings if your child can fit through the rails.
  • Keep the doors of rooms you don’t want the children to enter always locked.


  • Cover electric outlets with safety plugs.
  • Have all major electrical appliances grounded.
  • Make longer cords fastened against walls.
  • Remove overloaded electrical sockets and electrical wires running under carpets.
  • Have televisions screwed to the wall or placed out of children’s reach on sturdy TV tables.

Heating & Cooling Elements:

  • Install a screen on all working fireplaces/heaters/radiators.
  • Have the chimney cleaned regularly.
  • Keep heaters at least 3 feet (about 1 meter) from beds, curtains, or anything flammable.

Emergency Equipment & Numbers:

  • Place a list of emergency phone numbers in every room in the house, and save them on your cell phone.
  • Have a fire extinguisher in the kitchen.
  • Have an emergency ladder for the upper floors.
  • Have smoke detectors and check their batteries regularly.
  • Install a carbon monoxide detector if you use natural gas or have an attached garage.

Other Safety Issues:

  • Remove any potentially poisonous houseplants.
  • Issue a no-smoking rule in your home to protect kids from environmental tobacco smoke and potential fire hazards.
  • When necessary, check your house for lead, radon, asbestos, mercury, mold, and carbon monoxide.
  • If there are guns in the home, place them in a locked cabinet with the key hidden and the ammunition locked separately.
  • Always supervise your child around pets, especially dogs.


Wishing you and your family all health and safety.

Bathroom Safety

An important part of good parenting is providing a safe home for your child.

I have some safety tips for you to make sure that your family is on the safe side.

This episode is about Bathroom safety.

  • Set the thermostat on the hot water heater below 120°F (50°C)?
  • Store razor blades, nail scissors, and other sharp tools in a locked cabinet.
  • Install childproof latches installed on all drawers and cabinets.
  • Make sure that the outlets have ground fault circuit interrupters (which protect against electrocution if an electrical appliance gets wet). (If you live in an older home, have an electrician inspect your circuit breaker panel.)
  • Always close toilets after use and if necessary, have a toilet-lid lock on the toilet.
  • Unplug all hair dryers, curling irons, and electric razors when not in use, and store them in a high closet.
  • Place nonskid mats or strips on the bottoms of bathtubs.
  • Place nonslip pads under rugs to hold them securely to the floor.
  • Store all medications, cosmetics, and cleaners in a locked cabinet.
  • Install a child-safety lock on the washing machine. Unplug it when not in use.
  • Never leave the child alone in the bathtub.
  • Avoid using oils for bathing and showering.

Wishing you and your family all health and safety.

Bedroom Safety


An important part of good parenting is providing a safe home for your child.

I have some safety tips for you to make sure that your family is on the safe side.

This episode is about the Child’s Room/your Bedroom safety.

  • Have a safety belt for your baby’s changing table, or change her diapers on the floor.
  • Make sure that all painted furniture and wooden toys are lead-free.
  • Buy a crib with slats less than 2-3/8 inches (6 centimeters) apart, and fix an old duvet onto them, under the mattress.
  • Make sure that the crib is sturdy and secure, and that mattress is firm and flat.
  • Remove soft pillows, large stuffed animals, bumper pads, and soft bedding from the baby’s crib.
  • Remove strings or ribbons off hanging mobiles and crib toys.
  • Make sure the window blinds and curtain cords are tied and secured with special clips or clothespins, and kept well out of reach and away from cribs.
  • Have dressers secured to walls with drawers closed. Never buy high-drawer chests.
  • Have the lids on toy storage containers with a lid support to keep them from slamming shut.
  • Place window guards on all windows.
  • Make sure night-lights are not touching any fabric like bedspreads or curtains.
  • Have your child wear flame-retardant sleepwear, or at least cotton clothes.
  • Install a smoke alarm outside the bedroom and check it every month.
  • Removed all drawstrings from your child’s clothing.
  • Keep all medication bottles, loose pills, coins, scissors, and any small or sharp objects away of kids’ reach.
  • Never use candles.
  • Have a no-smoking indoors policy.

If you own firearms:

  • All firearms should be stored unloaded and in the decocked position.
  • Store ammunition in a separate place and in a securely locked container and keep keys where kids can’t find them.

Wishing you and your family all health and safety.

Breastfeeding – Introduction


How to start breastfeeding?

Making the decision to breastfeed is a personal matter. Although doctors strongly recommend breastfeeding, the decision is up to “you and to your body’s ability to do it”.* I have some tips for you to start breastfeeding.

What Are the ABCs of Breastfeeding?

A = Awareness. Watch for your baby’s signs of hunger, and breastfeed whenever your baby is hungry. This is called “on demand” feeding.

B = Be patient. Breastfeed as long as your baby wants to nurse each time. Infants typically breastfeed for 15 minutes on each breast.

C = Comfort. This is key. Relax while breastfeeding, and your milk is more likely to “let down” and flow. Get yourself comfortable with pillows as needed to support you begin to breastfeed. Wear wide clothes, put your hair up, listen to music, make sure nothing is bothering you while you feed, and so on.


The first time you hold your newborn is a great time to start nursing. You can be in a sitting/semi-sitting position.

At the beginning, your body will produce very small amounts of a special milk called colostrum. It will be enough for your baby to fill up, so don’t worry about the amounts just yet. Now, let’s get started

  1. Position yourself comfortably. There are several feeding positions that you can choose from. If you’re in the sitting position: have proper back support, place a pillow on your lap to help you keep your back straight and arms resting on it. Support your feet by a footrest if you like. Remember: having an arched back or tense chest muscles may reduce the milk flow. So, relax!
  1. Position baby close to you, chest to chest, tummy to tummy, so that he does not have to turn his head or extend it too far to reach your breast. His mouth and nose should be facing your nipple.
  1. Support your breast using a C-hold: fingers underneath, thumb on top – all well away from the areola.
  1. Attach or latch baby onto your breast. Use your nipple to tickle the center of your baby’s bottom lip. This will encourage him to open his mouth wide. Aim your nipple slightly towards the roof of his mouth, bringing the baby to you chin first and pull him close by supporting his back, so that his chin drives into your breast. His nose will be touching your breast. Your hand forms a “second neck” for your baby. Good latch-on checkpoints for your baby include:

– his nose is nearly touching your breast

– his lips are flanged

– His mouth is covering a big part of the areola below the nipple, and your nipple should be far back in your baby’s mouth.

  1. Check if there’s pain! If the latch is uncomfortable or painful, gently place your finger in the baby’s mouth, between his gums, to detach him and try again.
  1. While feeding, keep drinking. It will help you produce more milk.
  1. After your baby finishes or if you notice that he’s suffering from his tummy (pulls up an starts crying), it’s burping time! Burping frees up room in your baby’s tummy so he can settle in and feed longer. It can also be beneficial for babies who spit up often. Don’t bother burping your baby if she seems content or falls asleep during or after a feeding.


How to burp your baby:

There are different burping methods you can try. Before trying either burping position, put a cloth over your shoulder (and even down your back) to protect your clothes from spit-up.

  1. On the chest or shoulder:

Hold your baby against your chest so his chin is resting on your shoulder. Support him with one hand and gently pat or rub his back with the other.

  1. Sitting on your lap:

Sit your baby on your lap facing away from you. Use one hand to support his body, the palm of your hand supporting his chest while your fingers gently support his chin and jaw. (Make sure you’re not putting your fingers around his throat.) Lean your baby slightly forward and gently pat or rub his back with your other hand.

  1. Face down across your lap:

Lay your baby face down on your legs so she’s lying across your knees, perpendicular to your body. Support her chin and jaw with one hand. Make sure your baby’s head isn’t lower than the rest of her body. Pat or rub her back with the other hand.


Let someone help you the first few times with holding the baby’s head facing the breast. Don’t panic if your newborn seems to have trouble finding or staying on your nipple – breastfeeding requires lots of practice.


If you have a premature baby, you may not be able to nurse right away, but you should start pumping your milk. Your baby will receive this milk through a tube or a bottle until she’s strong enough to nurse. Once your baby latches on properly, she’ll do the rest.


So, how often should you nurse? Frequently. The more you nurse, the more milk you’ll produce. Nursing eight to 12 times every 24 hours would be the best. Also, discuss supplementation of both iron and vitamin D with your pediatrician.


How to know that the baby is having enough milk? If your baby is gaining weight and seems contented after most breastfeeds; he’s fine! Also, keep an eye on your baby’s diapers. In the first couple of days after birth, your baby should wet several nappies a day. He’ll also pass one or more poos (meconium) a day.


Over the next few days, your baby’s poos will turn from dark and sticky to yellow and soft. He should have at least six wet nappies every 24 hours – once he’s more than five days old. If your baby has dry-ish nappies, and doesn’t poo often, it can be a sign that he’s not getting enough fluid.


If you’re at worried that your baby isn’t getting enough milk, try these steps:

– Feed more often.

– Watch for cues that your baby is hungry: making sucking noises, or turning his head towards you with an open mouth (rooting).

– Let your baby stay on one breast for as long as he seems to want to, before switching to the other breast. This allows him to get the filling fat-rich milk that comes at the end of the feed.


Wishing you and your family the best of health.

Puberty Talk with Boys

Puberty Talk with Boys


Talking to children about puberty is difficult and uncomfortable for many parents.  I have some tips for you to help you out with this important experience.

1-Start the conversations early. If you explain early on the changes he will experience, the puberty process will be much easier on everyone.

Be honest and serious. Children appreciate it.

Do not laugh or make fun of him in any way. As soon as you show disrespect for his feelings, he will lose trust in you and try to find his way in life without your help.

2-Find good books or websites that provide him with the proper information. Because otherwise he’s going to end up on the types of sites that you don’t want him learning from.

3-Let him know that physical changes are coming, and that his body is going through transformations that will lead him into being a man.  

Boys should know the following about  their puberty:

  • They will get pubic hair and underarm hair, and their body hair becomes thicker and darker.
  • They get acne and start to sweat more.
  • They also will smell differently and that’s why it’s necessary to mention the importance of daily showering and changing their clothes. Please spend sometime explaining to your child how to clean his private parts propeprly.
  • They have a growth spurt.
  • Their penises and testicles grow larger.
  • Their voices change and become deeper.
  • They grow facial hair and their muscles get bigger.
  • They sometimes have wet dreams, which means they ejaculate in their sleep.
  • Also let them know that girls at school are going to change too, and become young women.  
  • With boys, the focus can be on the penis. Since not all boys develop at the same time or rate, your son may feel like he is too big or too small. Make sure he undertands that every penis size is normal.
  • Some boys experience temporary breast growth during puberty. This is caused by changing hormone levels during puberty. It usually disappears within months.
  • *Let your son know that everyone goes through puberty at a different age and at a different rate, and that he should not compare his body to enyone else’s. On average, boys begin going through puberty a little later than girls, usually around age 10 or 11. But they may begin to develop sexually or have their first ejaculation without looking older.

4-Talk about Aggression and Respect

Mood and hormonal changes are part of growing up and everyone goes through it.

Parents should take the time to explain to their sons that puberty leads to more testosterone which will make your son more muscular and more aggressive. At this phase, boys need to clearly understand that with their new strength comes a responsibility to be respectful especially towards women- especially their moms.

5-Prepare your son for his sexual life. Tell him about sexuality, STIs, and how preganncy happens. Stress on the fact of respecting girls’ bodies and feelings. The masturbation talk should be done by the father or an uncle. Do not say negative things about the practice itself, because any feeling of shame you give him around his sexuality will be haunting him for the rest of his life. Only give him scientific information and make sure that he keeps his free time busy with a sport.

Always remember to be patient with your child’s awkward motor skills. His new body dimentions are new to him and he needs time to refine his coordination. If he drops a plate or a glass, it’s totally normal for this phase.

Let your child know that you’re available any time to talk- but it’s also important to initiate conversations. If you’re not entirely comfortable having a conversation about puberty, practice what you want to say first. Let your child know that it may be a little uncomfortable to discuss, but it’s an important talk to have. In order to avoid the eye-to-eye feelings, you can use the time when you’re alone in the car, and you tell him some information while you are focussing on the road. And of course you can always pay a visit to a pediatrician to help you out with this task.


Cesarean Section – C-Section

Cesarean delivery — also known as a C-section — is a surgical procedure used to deliver a baby through incisions in the mother’s abdomen and uterus.
A C-section might be planned ahead of time. Often, however, the need for a first-time C-section doesn’t become obvious until you are in labor.
Sometimes a C-section is safer for you or your baby than is a vaginal delivery. Your doctor might recommend a C-section if:
Your labor isn’t progressing. When your cervix isn’t opening enough despite strong contractions over several hours.
Your baby isn’t getting enough oxygen. For example when There’s a problem with the umbilical cord.
Your baby or babies are in an abnormal position.
You’re carrying multiples.
There’s a problem with your placenta. For example if the placenta covers the opening of your cervix (placenta previa)
You have a health codition. complex heart problems, high blood pressure requiring urgent delivery or an infection that could be passed to your baby during vaginal delivery — such as genital herpes or HIV.
Mechanical obstruction. You might need a C-section if you have a large fibroid obstructing the birth canal, a severely displaced pelvic fracture or your baby has a very large head.
You’ve had a previous C-section. Depending on the type of uterine incision and other factors, it’s often possible to attempt a vaginal birth after a previous C-section. In some cases, however, your doctor might recommend a repeat C-section.
Some women request C-sections with their first babies — to avoid labor or the possible complications of vaginal birth or to take advantage of the convenience of a planned delivery. However, this is discouraged if you plan on having several children.
Recovery from a C-section takes longer than does recovery from a vaginal birth. And like other types of major surgery, C-sections also carry risks to you and your baby.
Risks to your baby include:
Breathing problems. C-sections done before 39 weeks of pregnancy or without proof of the baby’s lung maturity might increase the risk of breathing problems for babies.
Surgical injury. Although rare, accidental cuts to the baby’s skin can occur during surgery.
C-section babies have a slightly higher risk of developing obesity, asthma and other ailments than do children born vaginally. There are differences between the microbial communities on their skin and in their guts than babies born vaginally.
Risks to the mother include:
Inflammation and infection of the endometrium (membrane lining the uterus). (endometritis) — can cause fever, foul-smelling vaginal discharge and uterine pain. It’s a dangerous condition that requires urgent medical help.
Increased bleeding. You’re likely to lose more blood with a C-section than with a vaginal birth.
Reactions to anesthesia. Adverse reactions to any type of anesthesia are possible.
Blood clots. The risk of developing a blood clot inside a vein — especially in the legs or pelvic organs — is greater after a C-section than after a vaginal delivery. If a blood clot travels to your lungs (pulmonary embolism), the damage can be life-threatening. You will be given medications to prevent it at the hopistal. You can aslo help prevent clots by walking frequently soon after surgery.
Wound infection. Infections are more common with C-sections compared to vaginal deliveries.
Surgical injury. Although rare, surgical injuries to nearby organs — such as the bladder can occur during a C-section. If there is a surgical injury during your C-section additional surgery might be needed.
Increased risks during future pregnancies. After a C-section, you face a higher risk of potentially serious complications in a subsequent pregnancy — including problems with the placenta — than you would after a vaginal delivery. The risk of uterine rupture, when the uterus tears open along the scar line from a prior C-section, is also higher if you attempt vaginal birth after C-section (VBAC).
If your C-section is scheduled in advance, certain blood tests will provide information about your blood type and your level of hemoglobin. These details will be helpful to your health care team in the unlikely event that you need a blood transfusion during the C-section.
If your C-section is planned before 39 weeks for a non-emergency reason, your baby’s lung maturity might be tested before the C-section. This is done with amniocentesis — a procedure in which a sample of the amniotic fluid is removed from the uterus for testing. Maturity amniocentesis can offer assurance that the baby is ready for birth.
Even if you’re planning a vaginal birth, it’s important to prepare for the unexpected. Discuss the possibility of a C-section with your health care provider well before your due date.
After a C-section, you’ll need time to rest and recover. Consider recruiting help ahead of time for the weeks following the birth of your baby.
During the procedure
While the process can vary, depending on why the procedure is being done, most C-sections involve these steps:
At home. Take a shower. Don’t shave your pubic hair. This can increase the risk of surgical site infection. If your pubic hair needs to be removed, it will be trimmed just before surgery.
At the hospital. Before your C-section, your abdomen will be cleansed. A tube (catheter) will likely be placed into your bladder to collect urine. Intravenous (IV) lines will be placed in a vein in your hand or arm to provide fluid and medication. You might be given an antacid to reduce the risk of an upset stomach during the procedure.
Anesthesia. Most C-sections are done under regional anesthesia, which numbs only the lower part of your body — allowing you to remain awake during the procedure. A common choice is a spinal block, in which pain medication is injected directly into the sac surrounding your spinal cord. In an emergency, general anesthesia is sometimes needed.
Abdominal incision. The doctor will make an incision through your abdominal wall. It’s usually done horizontally near the pubic hairline (bikini incision). If a large incision is needed or your baby must be delivered very quickly, the doctor might make a vertical incision from just below the navel to just above the pubic bone. Your doctor will then make incisions – layer by layer – through your fatty tissue and connective tissue and separate the abdominal muscle to access your abdominal cavity.
Uterine incision. The uterine incision is then made — usually horizontally across the lower part of the uterus (low transverse incision). Other types of uterine incisions might be used depending on the baby’s position within your uterus and whether you have complications, such as placenta previa — when the placenta partially or completely blocks the uterus.
Delivery. The baby will be delivered through the incisions. The doctor will clear your baby’s mouth and nose of fluids, then clamp and cut the umbilical cord. The placenta will be removed from your uterus, and the incisions will be closed with sutures.
If you have regional anesthesia, you’ll be able to hear and see the baby right after delivery.
After the procedure
After a C-section, most mothers and babies stay in the hospital for two to three days. You might use a pump that allows you to adjust the dose of intravenous (IV) pain medication.
Soon after your C-section, you’ll be encouraged to get up and walk. This will help prevent constipation and DVT.
You will be monitored for signs of infection, how much fluid you’re drinking, and bladder and bowel function.
You will be able to start breast-feeding as soon as you feel up to it. Your nurse or a lactation consultant will teach you how to position yourself and support your baby so that you’re comfortable. Your health care team will select medications for your post-surgical pain with breast-feeding in mind. Pain control is important since pain interferes with the release of oxytocin, a hormone that helps your milk flow.
When you go home
While you’re recovering:
Take it easy. Rest when possible. Get help from the family. For the first few weeks, avoid lifting anything heavier than your baby.
Support your abdomen. Use pillows for extra support while breast-feeding, straining or coughing. A pregnancy belt might provide additional support but it’s not necessary.
Drink plenty of fluids. Drinking water and other fluids can help replace the fluid lost during delivery and breast-feeding, as well as prevent constipation.
Take medication as needed. Most pain relief medications are safe for women who are breast-feeding, but avoid Aspirin.
Avoid sex. Don’t have sex until four to six weeks after surgery. But repmember to spend some time with your partner. Express your love to each other, even if it’s just a few minutes in the morning or after the baby goes to sleep at night.
Contact your health care provider if you experience:
Any signs of infection — such as a fever higher than 100.4 F (38 C), severe pain in your abdomen, or redness, swelling and discharge at your incision site
Breast pain accompanied by redness or fever
Foul-smelling vaginal discharge
Painful urination
Heavy bleeding that soaks a sanitary napkin within an hour or bleeding that continues longer than eight weeks after delivery
Postpartum depression — which can cause severe mood swings, loss of appetite, overwhelming fatigue and lack of joy in life
Wishing you a speedy recovery and a happy new role in life.

Preparing for Surgery Part 2

Your admission letter from the hospital will tell you the date and time of your operation, and what time you need to arrive.
It should also tell you which ward or department you’re going to be in, a contact number for your hospital or ward, and the consultant who will be taking care of you.
When you arrive, a member of staff will explain the processes to you and give you an identity bracelet to wear during your stay in hospital.
During your time in hospital, you may be asked the same questions by several people. This is routine, and ensures that correct information about you is checked and available at each stage of treatment.
You may want to ask some questions of your own, write them down in advance so you won’t forget anything.

Take any medicines your doctor asked you to take before surgery. However, if you normally take tablets or insulin for diabetes, make sure you mention that to the surgical team.
You’ll be asked whether you’re allergic to any medication, if you throw up after surgeries, or whether any relatives have ever had any problems with an anaesthetic.

You’ll be asked to change into a hospital gown, and the details of the operation will be explained. You’ll then be asked to sign a consent form, giving your permission for surgery to go ahead. This form indicates that you know what the surgery is for, and you understand the risks, benefits and alternative treatments.
For some operations, a needle connected to a drip will be injected into your hand, allowing fluids, nourishment and medicine to be given while you’re under anaesthetic.

You’ll be given an anaesthetic, so you won’t feel any pain during the operation.
A general anaesthetic will be needed for a major operation, which means you’ll be asleep throughout the whole operation. It will be given to you via an injection or gas, which you breathe through a mask.
The anaesthetist will be by your side the whole time you are asleep, carefully monitoring you, and will be there when you wake up.
If you don’t need to be put to sleep, you’ll be given a regional anaesthetic. This means you’ll be conscious throughout, but you won’t feel any pain. It may be a local anaesthetic, where a small area is numbed, or an epidural, which reduces sensation in the upper or lower areas of your body.

After surgery you’ll be moved to the recovery room, where you’ll be told how the operation went.
You may feel dizzy as you come round from the anaesthetic. A nurse will give you oxygen through tubes or a mask to help you feel better.
It’s common to feel sick or vomit after you’ve been given anaesthesia. You may also have a sore throat and dry mouth.
Your blood pressure will be taken via an automatic cuff that squeezes tightly at regular times. Your temperature will also be taken.

It’s important to find out how well your operation went. Here are some questions you may want to ask: (>>>>)

Tell your nurse as soon as you start to feel any pain, so they can give you painkilling medication as soon as possible, to stop it getting worse (the medication can take 20 minutes to start working).

The sooner you start to move around, the better. Lying in bed for too long can cause some of your blood to pool in your legs. This puts you at risk of a blood clot.
If possible, doing some leg exercises can help to prevent a blood clot. These may be as simple as flexing your knee or ankle and rotating your foot.
You may be given special support stockings to wear after surgery, or an injection to thin the blood slightly to help reduce the risk of clots.

Research shows the earlier you get out of bed and start walking, eating and drinking after your operation, the faster the recovery will be.

Before you leave hospital you will be given advice about how to care for your wound and how often to use the medications.
Feel free to ask your doctor some questions before you leave hospital. (>>>)

You might be feeling very tired when you get home, especially if you’ve had a major operation or a general anaesthetic.
It’s important to move around as soon as possible after surgery. This will encourage your blood to flow and your wounds to heal, and will build up strength in your muscles.
Generally, try to get back into your regular routine as soon as possible. Eat more healthily, start exercising to stay in shape, and stop smoking if you smoke.

If you or your caregivers at home notice any of the following signs after your operation, call the doctor immediately:
pain or swelling in your leg. The pain may be made worse by bending your foot upward towards your knee
the skin of your leg feeling hot or discoloured
the veins near the surface of your leg appearing larger than normal
Those could be signs of a deep venous thrombosis (DVT). If DVT is not treated, a pulmonary embolism may occur. Pulmonary embolism is a blood clot that has come away from its original site and become lodged in one of your lungs.
If you have a pulmonary embolism, you may experience more serious symptoms, such as:
breathlessness, which may come on gradually or suddenly
chest pain, which may become worse when you breathe in
collapsing suddenly

Your doctor will have given you an idea of how long it’ll take to get back to normal.
As a rough guide, it’ll take you about a week to recover from a simple operation such as gallbladder removal, and a few months to recover from a major operation such as a hip replacement.

Wishing you a speedy recovery.