Dyspareunia

 

What is dyspareunia?

Dyspareunia is the medical term for ‘painful intercourse’.
‘Dys’ means bad or difficult
Pareunia: ‘Par’ + ‘unia’ = pairing or sexual union, so, sexual intercourse.
It is a general term used to describe all types of sexual pain.
Sexual pain can occur during or after the sexual intercourse.
It can exist anywhere in the genital area – the clitoris, labia, vagina, or the lower abdomen.
If you experience painful intercourse, you may feel:
– Pain only at sexual penetration (entry)
– Pain with every penetration, even while putting in a tampon
– New pain after previously pain-free intercourse
– Deep pain during thrusting
– Burning pain or aching pain
– Throbbing pain, lasting hours after intercourse
Physical causes of painful intercourse differ, depending on whether the pain occurs at entry or with deep thrusting. Emotional factors can be associated with many types of painful intercourse.

Entry pain:
Pain during penetration may be due to:
– Insufficient lubrication. Mainly as a result of not enough foreplay, after menopause or childbirth or during breast-feeding.
– Certain medications are known to inhibit desire or arousal, which can decrease lubrication and make sex painful. These include antidepressants, high blood pressure medications, sedatives, antihistamines and certain birth control pills.
– Any injury or irritation from an accident, pelvic surgery, female circumcision or a cut made during childbirth to enlarge the birth canal (episiotomy).
– An infection in your genital area or urinary tract can cause painful intercourse. Eczema or Bartholin gland cyst or abscess can give you pain with sexual intercourse.
– Discrepancy between the size of the penis and that of the vagina. A very large penis might cause pain to the partner’s vagina.
– Vaginismus. Involuntary spasms of the muscles of the vaginal wall (vaginismus) can make attempts at penetration very painful.
– Congenital abnormality. A problem present at birth, such as the absence of a fully-formed vagina (vaginal agenesis) or development of a membrane that blocks the vaginal opening (imperforate hymen), could be the underlying cause of dyspareunia.

Deep pain:
Deep pain usually occurs with deep penetration and may be more pronounced with certain positions. Causes include:
– Certain illnesses and conditions: endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, uterine prolapse, retroverted uterus, uterine fibroids, cystitis, irritable bowel syndrome, hemorrhoids and ovarian cysts.
– Surgeries or medical treatments. Scarring from pelvic surgery, including hysterectomy, can sometimes cause painful intercourse. Medical treatments for cancer, such as radiation and chemotherapy, can cause changes that make sex painful.
There are also Emotional factors involved:
Emotions are deeply intertwined with sexual activity and may play a role in any type of sexual pain. Emotional factors include:
– Psychological problems. Anxiety, depression, concerns about your physical appearance, fear of intimacy or relationship problems can result in discomfort or pain.
– Stress. Your pelvic floor muscles tend to tighten in response to stress in your life. This can contribute to pain during intercourse.
– History of sexual abuse. Most women with dyspareunia don’t have a history of sexual abuse, but if you have been abused, it may play a role.

It is important to bear in mind that vaginismus can co-exist with any condition that causes dyspareunia. Vaginismus may also continue to be present even after the original cause has been resolved or managed.

Normal sexual intercourse should not cause you any pain. If it does, it can harm your sex life, your emotional intimacy and your self-image. It might also be a sign of life- threatening medical condition. That’s why it’s important to seek medical help if you experience dyspareunia.

I wish you the best of health.

Puberty Talk with Boys

Toxic Shock Syndrome

 

Toxic shock syndrome is a rare but serious medical condition caused by toxins produced by a bacterial infection.

Although toxic shock syndrome has been linked to tampon use in menstruating women, this condition can affect men, children, and people of all ages due to different reasons.
Infection usually occurs when bacteria enters the body through an opening in the skin. For instance, bacteria can enter through a cut, sore, or other wound.
Risk factors for this condition include a recent skin burn, skin infection, or surgery, recent childbirth, also the use of a diaphragm or vaginal sponge to prevent pregnancy.
Symptoms of toxic shock syndrome can vary from person to person. In most cases, symptoms appear suddenly. Common signs of this condition include:

a sudden fever
low blood pressure
headache
muscle aches
confusion
diarrhea
nausea
vomiting
rash
redness of eyes, mouth, and throat
seizures

You might attribute symptoms of toxic shock syndrome to another medical condition, such as the flu. However, if you experience the above symptoms after using tampons or after a surgery or skin injury, contact your doctor immediately.

Your doctor may make a diagnosis of toxic shock syndrome based on a physical examination and your symptoms. He may also check your blood and urine for bacteria, and assess your liver and kidney functions. They may also take swabs of cells from your cervix, vagina, and throat to be analyzed for the bacteria that cause toxic shock syndrome.

Toxic shock syndrome is a medical emergency. Some people have to stay in the intensive care unit for several days. Your doctor will most likely prescribe an intravenous (IV) antibiotics to help you fight the bacterial infection.
Other treatment methods for toxic shock syndrome vary depending on the cause. For example, if a vaginal sponge or tampon triggered toxic shock, your doctor may need to remove this foreign object from your body. If an open wound or surgical wound caused your toxic shock syndrome, the doctor will drain pus or blood from the wound to help clear up any infection.

You will also receive medications to stabilize blood pressure, boost your body’ immune system, and IV fluids to fight dehydration.
If left untreated, Toxic Shock Syndrome can lead to:

liver failure
kidney failure
heart failure
Shock
Death

Certain precautions can reduce your risk of developing toxic shock syndrome. For example:

changing your tampon/sanitary napkin every four to eight hours
washing your hands frequently to remove any bacteria
keeping cuts and surgical incisions clean and changing dressings often

Remember: if you notice any of the early warning signs of TSS on yourself or a family member who’s had a wound, infection, surgery, or her period recently, please contact your doctor or drive to the emergency room immediately- to save their lives.

Wishing you all the best.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic disorder that affects the large intestine (colon).
Spastic colon is another term for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), The term “spastic” describes spasms of muscles in the small and large intestines. But this term spastic colon isn’t always accurate, because IBS may also be associated with decreased motility/movement of the intestine.
The symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome vary from person to person. The most common symptoms are:
Abdominal pain or cramping
Feeling bloated
Gas
Diarrhea or constipation — sometimes in alternating bouts.
Mucus in the stool
For most people, IBS is a chronic condition. The symptoms might get better or worse or even disappear completely over time.
But there are symptoms that may indicate a more serious condition, such as:
Rectal bleeding
Abdominal pain that progresses or occurs at night
Weight loss
Diarrhea and constipation can aggravate hemorrhoids. Also, when you avoid certain foods, you may not get enough of the nutrients your body needs.
IBS may negatively affect your quality of life, leading to discouragement or depression.
Diagnosis
Because there are usually no physical signs to definitively diagnose IBS, your doctor will diagnose it by ruling out other conditions.
If you don’t respond to that treatment, you’ll likely require more tests. So, be ready for a lengthy process of diagnostic tests sometimes, like: Imaging tests:
and Laboratory tests:
Treatments and drugs
Because it’s not clear what causes irritable bowel syndrome, treatment focuses on the relief of symptoms so that you can live as normally as possible.
In most cases, you can successfully control mild problems of irritable bowel syndrome by learning to manage stress and making changes in your diet and lifestyle. If your problems are moderate or severe, you may need more than lifestyle changes. Your doctor may suggest medications.
Dietary changes:
Eliminating high-gas foods. items as carbonated beverages, vegetables — especially cabbage, broccoli and cauliflower — and raw fruits, should be avoided.
Eliminating gluten. Research shows that some people with IBS report improvement in diarrhea symptoms if they stop eating gluten (wheat, barley and rye).
Eliminating FODMAPs. Some people are sensitive to types of carbohydrates found in certain grains, vegetables, fruits and dairy products. You may be able to get relief from your IBS symptoms on a strict low FODMAP diet and then reintroduce foods one at time. Talk to your dietitian about it.

Fiber supplements.
Anti-diarrheal medications.
Anticholinergic and antispasmodic medications.
Antidepressants.
Antibiotics.
&
Counseling.
Lifestyle and home remedies
In many cases, simple changes in your diet and lifestyle can provide relief from irritable bowel syndrome. Although your body may not respond immediately to these changes, your goal is to find long-term, not temporary, solutions:
1- Chew very well on your food. Take the time to chew your food into smaller and smaller pieces until it’s essentially a liquid before swallowing. The interaction that your saliva has with your food is very important for the digestion process. It will make
2- Experiment with fiber. Although it helps reduce constipation, it can also make gas and cramping worse.So, the best approach is to slowly increase the amount of fiber in your diet over a period of weeks. Foods that contain fiber are whole grains, fruits, vegetables and beans.
3- Avoid problem foods. Keep a food diary, find out what upsets your colon, and eliminate it from your diet. If certain foods make your signs and symptoms worse, don’t eat them. These may include alcohol, chocolate, caffeinated beverages such as coffee and sodas, medications that contain caffeine, dairy products, red meat, and sugar-free sweeteners such as sorbitol or mannitol.
If gas is a problem for you, foods that might make symptoms worse include beans, cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli. Fatty foods also may be a problem for some people. Chewing gum or drinking through a straw can lead to swallowing air, causing more gas.
Take care with dairy products. If you’re lactose intolerant, try substituting yogurt for milk. Or use an enzyme product to help break down lactose. Consuming small amounts of milk products or combining them with other foods also may help. In some cases, though, you may need to stop eating dairy foods completely. In this case, make sure to get enough protein, calcium and B vitamins from other sources.
Herbs. Fresh Peppermint and peppermint may provide short-term relief of IBS symptoms.
Probiotics. Probiotics are “good” bacteria that normally live in your intestines and are found in certain foods, such as yogurt, and in dietary supplements. If you have irritable bowel syndrome, you may not have enough good bacteria. Adding probiotics to your diet may help ease your symptoms.
Drink plenty of fluids every day. Water is best. Alcohol and beverages that contain caffeine stimulate your intestines and can make diarrhea worse, and carbonated drinks can produce gas. So, water and herba teas are your best options.

4- Eat at regular times. Don’t skip meals. If you have diarrhea, eating small, frequent meals makes you feel better. But if you’re constipated, eating larger amounts of high-fiber foods may help move food through your intestines.
5- Exercise regularly. Exercise helps relieve depression and stress, stimulates normal contractions of your intestines, and can help you feel better about yourself. Check with your doctor before starting an exercise program, especially if you have a medical problem.
6- Use anti-diarrheal medications and laxatives with caution. In the long run, these medications can cause problems if you don’t use them correctly. So, always check with your doctor or pharmacist before using any medications, and read the patient information leaflet. You will find it packed with your medicine.
Always remember that a healthy lifestyle is the key factor to overcome IBS. All the best.

Preparing for Surgery Part 2

Your admission letter from the hospital will tell you the date and time of your operation, and what time you need to arrive.
It should also tell you which ward or department you’re going to be in, a contact number for your hospital or ward, and the consultant who will be taking care of you.
When you arrive, a member of staff will explain the processes to you and give you an identity bracelet to wear during your stay in hospital.
During your time in hospital, you may be asked the same questions by several people. This is routine, and ensures that correct information about you is checked and available at each stage of treatment.
You may want to ask some questions of your own, write them down in advance so you won’t forget anything.

Take any medicines your doctor asked you to take before surgery. However, if you normally take tablets or insulin for diabetes, make sure you mention that to the surgical team.
You’ll be asked whether you’re allergic to any medication, if you throw up after surgeries, or whether any relatives have ever had any problems with an anaesthetic.

You’ll be asked to change into a hospital gown, and the details of the operation will be explained. You’ll then be asked to sign a consent form, giving your permission for surgery to go ahead. This form indicates that you know what the surgery is for, and you understand the risks, benefits and alternative treatments.
For some operations, a needle connected to a drip will be injected into your hand, allowing fluids, nourishment and medicine to be given while you’re under anaesthetic.

You’ll be given an anaesthetic, so you won’t feel any pain during the operation.
A general anaesthetic will be needed for a major operation, which means you’ll be asleep throughout the whole operation. It will be given to you via an injection or gas, which you breathe through a mask.
The anaesthetist will be by your side the whole time you are asleep, carefully monitoring you, and will be there when you wake up.
If you don’t need to be put to sleep, you’ll be given a regional anaesthetic. This means you’ll be conscious throughout, but you won’t feel any pain. It may be a local anaesthetic, where a small area is numbed, or an epidural, which reduces sensation in the upper or lower areas of your body.

After surgery you’ll be moved to the recovery room, where you’ll be told how the operation went.
You may feel dizzy as you come round from the anaesthetic. A nurse will give you oxygen through tubes or a mask to help you feel better.
It’s common to feel sick or vomit after you’ve been given anaesthesia. You may also have a sore throat and dry mouth.
Your blood pressure will be taken via an automatic cuff that squeezes tightly at regular times. Your temperature will also be taken.

It’s important to find out how well your operation went. Here are some questions you may want to ask: (>>>>)

Tell your nurse as soon as you start to feel any pain, so they can give you painkilling medication as soon as possible, to stop it getting worse (the medication can take 20 minutes to start working).

The sooner you start to move around, the better. Lying in bed for too long can cause some of your blood to pool in your legs. This puts you at risk of a blood clot.
If possible, doing some leg exercises can help to prevent a blood clot. These may be as simple as flexing your knee or ankle and rotating your foot.
You may be given special support stockings to wear after surgery, or an injection to thin the blood slightly to help reduce the risk of clots.

Research shows the earlier you get out of bed and start walking, eating and drinking after your operation, the faster the recovery will be.

Before you leave hospital you will be given advice about how to care for your wound and how often to use the medications.
Feel free to ask your doctor some questions before you leave hospital. (>>>)

You might be feeling very tired when you get home, especially if you’ve had a major operation or a general anaesthetic.
It’s important to move around as soon as possible after surgery. This will encourage your blood to flow and your wounds to heal, and will build up strength in your muscles.
Generally, try to get back into your regular routine as soon as possible. Eat more healthily, start exercising to stay in shape, and stop smoking if you smoke.

If you or your caregivers at home notice any of the following signs after your operation, call the doctor immediately:
pain or swelling in your leg. The pain may be made worse by bending your foot upward towards your knee
the skin of your leg feeling hot or discoloured
the veins near the surface of your leg appearing larger than normal
Those could be signs of a deep venous thrombosis (DVT). If DVT is not treated, a pulmonary embolism may occur. Pulmonary embolism is a blood clot that has come away from its original site and become lodged in one of your lungs.
If you have a pulmonary embolism, you may experience more serious symptoms, such as:
breathlessness, which may come on gradually or suddenly
chest pain, which may become worse when you breathe in
collapsing suddenly

Your doctor will have given you an idea of how long it’ll take to get back to normal.
As a rough guide, it’ll take you about a week to recover from a simple operation such as gallbladder removal, and a few months to recover from a major operation such as a hip replacement.

Wishing you a speedy recovery.

Preparing for Surgery Part1

Facing surgery can be a frightening experience. You may be having questions, fears, and doubts. Research suggests that people who prepare mentally and physically for surgery have fewer complications, less pain and recover more quickly than others.
This episode is to guide you through the preparation process for surgery.

While emotional preparation is a necessary, preparing physically is also important for a successful surgical outcome. In the 2 weeks before your surgery, you should:
Stop smoking and alcohol drinking.
Eat a healthy diet.
Avoid aspirin, vitamin E, multivitamins, or other medications that interfere with blood clotting for a week before your surgery. Discuss it with your health care provider before stopping any medication.
Exercise regularly.

Some days before surgery, you’ll be asked to attend a pre-operative assessment, which may be an appointment with a nurse or doctor. You’ll be asked questions about your health, and some medical tests will be carried out.
Make sure that you inform your doctor about all the medications, vitamins and herbal supplements you take.
You’ll be given clear information on:
whether you need to stop eating and drinking in the hours before your operation
whether you should stop taking your usual medications before going into hospital
what to bring with you into hospital
how long you’ll be statying at the hospital
If your doctor has instructed you to fast before the operation, it’s really important that you don’t eat or drink anything – this includes light snacks, sweets and water. You need an empty stomach during surgery, so you don’t vomit while you’re under anaesthetic.
If you take insulin because of diabetes you’ll still need to avoid eating and drinking before surgery, but make sure your medical team is aware of your condition.

You’ll need to remove all body piercings, make-up and nail polish before your operation. This can help to reduce unwanted bacteria being brought into the hospital. Also, the doctors will need to see your skin and nails to make sure your blood circulation is healthy during the opeartion.

If you’re staying in hospital, you may wish to pack a hospital bag.

You may want to check with your hospital about their policy on the use of electronic devices during your hospital stay.

Let your surgeon know if you develop a cough, cold or fever a few days before surgery. They’ll advise whether your operation can go ahead.

You should avoid certain foods and dietary supplements before surgery.
having food in your system may cause nausea and vomiting, which can be dangerous. Some foods may complicate intestinal surgeries or cause diarrhea. In addition to this, Your doctor or surgeon will give you diet advice prior to surgery.
The night before your surgery, you should only drink beverages you can see through. Your body will digest these drinks quickly so your digestive system is cleared for surgery. Avoid juice with pulp, coffee with cream, cola and milk.
While fibrous foods are normally healthy for your body, you should not consume them prior to surgery. Fiber takes a longer period of time for your body to break down and your bowels need to be cleared out before surgery. Avoid high-fiber foods such as whole-wheat pasta, oatmeal, whole-grain bread, beans and lentils, artichokes, peas and broccoli, raspberries, pears, apples and oranges.
Your doctor may recommend that you stop taking any supplements one week before surgery.

Bartholin Gland Cyst

When I was a teenager, I had very little information about my body. My mother was too shy to open up and talk to me about my sexual develeopment. There was no Internet, and no books available to answer my questions.
One morning I was washing my body, them I usddently stumbled upon a very strange pea sized swelling right at the opening of my vagina. I was 14 or so. I was mortified. I was scared to tell my mother. I spent days trying to figure out what I’d done wrong, or thinking maybe I had cancer!

It turned out to be a Brtholon cyst.
What are the Bartholin glands?
The Bartholin glands are two small organs under the skin in a woman’s genital area. They are on either side of the folds of skin (labia) that surround the vagina and urethra. Most of the time, you can’t feel or see the Bartholin glands.
The Bartholin glands make a small amount of fluid that moistens the outer genital area, or vulva. This fluid comes out of two tiny tubes next to the opening of the vagina. These tubes are called Bartholin ducts.
What are Bartholin gland cysts?
If a Bartholin duct gets blocked, fluid builds up in the gland. The blocked gland is called a Bartholin gland cyst. These cysts can range in size from a pea to a large marble. If the Bartholin gland or duct gets infected, it’s called a Bartholin gland abscess.
Bartholin gland cysts are often small and painless. Some go away without treatment. But if you have symptoms, you might want treatment. If the cyst is infected, you will need treatment.
What causes a Bartholin gland cyst?
Things like an infection, thick mucus, or swelling can block a Bartholin gland duct and cause a cyst.
Infected Bartholin cysts are sometimes caused by sexually transmitted infections (STIs). But they can also happen when you don’t have sex.
What are the symptoms?
You may not have any symptoms if the Bartholin gland cyst is small. But a large cyst or an infected cyst (abscess) can cause symptoms.
Symptoms of a cyst that is not infected include:
A painless lump in the vulva area.
Redness or swelling in the vulva area.
Discomfort when you walk, sit, or have sex.
Symptoms of an infected cyst include:
Pain that gets worse and makes it hard to walk, sit, or move around.
Fever and chills.
Swelling in the vulva area.
Drainage from the cyst.
How are Bartholin gland cysts diagnosed?
You may find a Bartholin gland cyst on your own. Unless it is causing symptoms, you may not know you have one.
An abscess is diagnosed based on signs of infection, such as fever or swelling, and pain in the vulva area.
In some cases, especially if you are older, your doctor may remove the cyst to make sure that it isn’t cancer or another problem.
How are they treated?
Some Bartholin gland cysts go away without treatment. You can take a nonprescription pain medicine to relieve pain. To help healing, soak the area in a shallow, warm bath, or a sitz bath.
A sitz bath is one in which the hips and buttocks are put in water. It is usually used to promote healing and symptom relief around the bottom, such as for hemorrhoids, or genitals, such as for pain following childbirth.
There are different types of sitz baths to choose from, many of which can be purchased at medical supply stores. A common type is a basin that fits on a toilet seat and is filled with water.

Don’t have sex while a Bartholin cyst is healing.
If the cyst is infected, it may break open and start to heal on its own after 3 to 4 days. But if the cyst is painful, your doctor may drain it. You may also need to take antibiotics to treat the infection.
To keep the cyst from closing and filling up again, your doctor may put a small drainage tube with a small balloon at one end inside the cyst. The balloon is inflated inside the cyst to keep the cyst open. After the gland has healed, the tube and balloon are removed.
For severe cysts that keep coming back, you may have surgery to remove the Bartholin gland and duct.
There is a procedure called marsu-pia-lization in which a pouch is created by making a cut over the cyst and stitching the sides together. This allows the cyst to drain.
Don’t be scared of your bartholin gland.
All the best.

Hypertension

Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

Hypertension usually does not cause symptoms initially, but sustained hypertension over time is a major risk factor for many deadly complications. Why?

when there’s too much pressure on the walls of the blood vessels, they might end up bursting somewhere in the body causing severe damage to the surrounding tissues.
Hypertension is classified as either primary (essential) hypertension or secondary hypertension. About 90–95% of cases are categorized as primary hypertension, defined as high blood pressure with no obvious underlying cause, except maybe the unhealthy lifestyle. The other 5–10% of cases are categorized as secondary hypertension, which is due to an identifiable cause, such as chronic kidney disease, narrowing of the aorta or kidney arteries, or an endocrine disorder.
If you ignore your blood pressure because you think symptoms will alert you to the problem, you are taking a dangerous chance with your life. Everybody needs to measure their blood pressure on a regular basis, and to prevent high blood pressure from developing.

So, are there any warning signs for hyertension?

There’s a common misconception that people with high blood pressure, will experience symptoms such as nervousness, sweating, difficulty sleeping or facial flushing. The truth is that hypertension is very often a symptomless condition.

You should not try to evaluate your symptoms in an attempt to self-diagnose high blood pressure. Diagnosis should only be made by your doctor.

Headaches or the lack of headaches are not reliable indicators of your blood pressure. Instead, please work with your doctor and know your numbers.

Except with hypertensive crisis, nosebleeds are not a reliable indicator for hypertention. If your nosebleeds are frequent (more than once a week) or if they are heavy or hard to stop, you should talk to your doctor.
Keep in mind that nosebleeds can be caused by a variety of factors.

A variety of symptoms may be indirectly related to HBP but are warning signs that need medical assessment. For example:
Blood spots in the eyes
Floaters in the eyes are not related to high blood pressure. However, an ophthalmologist may be able to detect damage to the optic nerve caused by untreated HBP.
Facial flushing
Facial flushing occurs when blood vessels in the face dilate. While facial flushing may occur while your blood pressure is higher than usual, HBP is not the cause of facial flushing.
Dizziness
Sudden dizziness, loss of balance or coordination and trouble walking are all warning signs of a stroke. HBP is one of the leading risk factors for stroke.

When blood pressure readings rise to dangerously high levels (systolic of 180 or higher OR diastolic of 110 or higher) you may notice obvious symptoms. In addition to extreme readings of blood pressure, if you experience:
Severe headaches
Severe anxiety
Shortness of breath
Nosebleeds
This is called a hypertensive crisis, and emergency medical treatment is needed.

Prevention
Much of the disease burden of high blood pressure is experienced by people who are not labeled as hypertensive. Lifestyle changes are recommended to lower blood pressure, before starting drug therapy. Mainly:
maintain normal body weight for adults (e.g. body mass index 20–25 kg/m2)
reduce dietary sodium intake to engage in regular aerobic physical activity such as brisk walking (≥30 min per day, most days of the week)
limit alcohol consumption to no more than 3 units/day in men and no more than 2 units/day in women
consume a diet rich in fruit and vegetables (e.g. at least five portions per day);
Effective lifestyle modification may lower blood pressure as much as an individual antihypertensive drug. Combinations of two or more lifestyle modifications can achieve even better results.
Resistant hypertension
Resistant hypertension is defined as hypertension that remains above goal blood pressure in spite of using, at once, three antihypertensive medications belonging to different drug classes. Low adherence to treatment is an important cause of resistant hypertension. Resistant hypertension may also represent the result of chronic high activity of the autonomic nervous system; this concept is known as “neurogenic hypertension”.
What are the causes?
Resistant hypertension has several possible causes, including one or more other underlying medical conditions. In addition to treating RH with medications, doctors typically investigate secondary causes, such as:
Abnormalities in the hormones that control blood pressure.
Artery-clogging plaque in blood vessels that nourish the kidneys.
Sleep problems, such as obstructive sleep apnea.
Obesity and heavy alcohol intake.

If undiscovered, hypertension can be a serious health problem. Get your blood pressure checked on a regular basis, and stick to a healthy lifestyle to prevent it.
all the best.

Tips for Healthy Eyes

When you’re seeing well and have no irritation, it’s easy to forget about going to the eye doctor. Often, if you wait until you notice an eye problem, it can be too late.
I have 7 tips to help you protect your eye health.

1. Get Regular Eye Exams
Children should have their first eye exam between the ages of 6 and 12 months, then regular eye exams at school age. It’s important to detect visual problems that could impede a child’s ability to learn.
Adults, especially those over 40, should have yearly eye exams, particularly to prevent age-related ocular conditions including macular degeneration, cataracts, and glaucoma.
2. Let Your Eye Doctor Know Your Health History
Be sure your optometrist or ophthalmologist knows about what’s medically relevant. There’s a connection between illnesses in the body and eye issues. Hypertension, blood pressure and diabetes can all be detected by looking in the back of the eye.
3. Control the Air Quality in Your Home or Office
In the winter, the heating systems in homes and offices create dry air. Consider using a portable humidifier to keep the air moist, which will help prevent eye irritation caused by dryness. If you have a pet, keeping their hair off areas where you sit or lie down, like couches and chairs, is important as well. Pet hairs can track in other irritants from outside that can cause inflammation in the eyes.
4. Give Your Eyes a Break from the Computer Screen
Taking the following steps to protect your eyes:
Make sure your glasses or contact lenses are adequate for computer use.
Some people may need glasses to help with contrast, glare, and eye strain when using a computer.
Position your computer so that your eyes are level with the top of the monitor. This allows you to look slightly down at the screen.
Try to avoid glare on your computer from windows and lights. Use an anti-glare screen if needed.
If your eyes are dry, blink more.
Every 20 minutes, rest your eyes by looking 20 feet away for 20 seconds. At least every 2 hours, get up and take a 15-minute break.
5. Eat Right for Your Eyes
Dark leafy greens and dark berries can protect against macular degeneration, which is the leading cause of vision loss in people over 60. Foods rich in omega-3s, like walnuts and fresh cold-water fish, can reduce inflammation in the blood vessels of the eye.
6. Protect Your Eyes
Wear sunglasses with 100 percent UVA and UVB protection. And protect your children’s eyes as well. Clean your contact lens case: After you put in your contacts, be sure that the case is empty of all solution: Dump it out, then rinse and dry the case before you store your lenses in it again. This will prevent bactria from growing in it. Choose good quality makup and never use it inside your eyes. Throw away mascara 3 months after the opening date.
7. Be Prepared While Travelling
While flying, your eyes might feel dry. If you are a frequent traveller, be ready with eye drops (artifical tears)
If you waer glasses or lenses, take an extra pair of lenses and your glasses, just in case. And while you’re on vacation, avoid swimming with your contact lenses, to avoid the effect of chemicals and bacteria in the water on them.

All the best to you.

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)

Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)
There are many of options for psychotherapy, with different treatment approaches working best for different conditions.
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is a talking therapy that can help you manage several psychological problems by changing the way you think and behave.
CBT will not remove your problems, but it can help you deal with them in a more positive way.
The concept of CBT is that your thoughts, emotions, physical sensations and behavior are all interconnected. Negative thoughts cause negative feelings can can lead to negative actions, and that can trap you in a vicious cycle.
In CBT, problems are broken down into five main areas:
-situations
-thoughts
-emotions
-physical feelings
-actions
Then showing you how to change these negative patterns to improve your feelings and and actions.
Unlike some other talking treatments, CBT deals with your current problems, and will not focus on your past. It looks for practical ways to improve your state of mind on a daily basis.
CBT has been shown to be an effective way of treating a number of different mental health conditions: for example depression or anxiety disorders, OCD, panic disorde, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), phobias, eating disorders, sleep problems, problems related to alcohol misuse. CBT is sometimes used to treat people with long-term health conditions, such as chronic

What happens during CBT sessions?
You will usually have a session with a therapist once a week or once every two weeks. The course of treatment will take an average of 10 sessions, with each session lasting 30-60 minutes.
During the sessions, you will work with your therapist to break down your problems into their separate parts – such as your thoughts, physical feelings and actions.
You and your therapist will analyse these areas to work out if they are unrealistic or unhelpful and to determine the effect they have on each other and on you. Your therapist will then be able to help you work out how to change unhelpful thoughts and behaviours.
Common CBT interventions include:
– Setting realistic goals and learning how to solve problems learning how to manage stress and anxiety
– Identifying situations that are often avoided and gradually approaching feared situations
– Identifying and engaging in enjoyable activities
– Identifying and challenging negative thoughts
– Learning to become aware of feelings, thoughts
The eventual aim of therapy is to teach you to apply the skills you have learnt during treatment to your daily life. This should help you manage your problems and stop them having a negative impact on your life – even after your course of treatment finishes.
Types of CBT
CBT can be carried out in several different forms, including:
– Individual therapy – one-to-one sessions with a therapist
– Group therapy – with others who wish to tackle a similar problem
– A self-help book – where you carry out exercises from the book
– Acomputer program – known as computerised CBT (CCBT)

If applied correctly, CBT can change your life.

Best of luck